Welcome To PYPT

the premier platform for young physicists in Pakistan to showcase their skills and compete with peers from around the world. PYPT is a signature initiative of Pakistan Young Innovative Minds, aimed at promoting scientific excellence and nurturing the next generation of physicists.

What is PYPT?

PYPT is a chapter or the International Young Physicists’ Tournament(IYPT) operating in Pakistan. PYPT is an annual tournament that challenges high school students to solve complex physics problems in a competitive environment. Teams from across Pakistan compete in a series of rounds, starting with a regional qualifier, and advancing to a national final. In each round, teams are presented with several theoretical and experimental physics problems and have a fixed amount of time to prepare and present their solutions to a panel of judges. The judges evaluate the teams based on criteria such as the depth of their understanding, the clarity of their presentation, and the creativity of their solutions.

Previous Tournaments

  • Location: Pak Turk School and college Chak Shehzad Islamabad
  • Problems:
    1. Invent yourself
      Construct a passive device that will provide safe landing for an uncooked hen’s egg when dropped onto a hard surface from a fixed height of 2.5 m. The device must fall together with the egg. What is the smallest size of the device you can achieve?

    2. Balloon airhorn
      A simple airhorn can be constructed by stretching a balloon over the opening of a small container or cup with a tube through the other end (see Figure). Blowing through a small hole in the side of the container can produce a sound. Investigate how relevant parameters affect the sound.


    3.  Single lens telescope
      A telescope can be built using a single lens, provided that a small aperture is used instead of an eyepiece. How do the parameters of the lens and the hole influence the image (e.g. magnification, sharpness and brightness)?

    4. Magnetic hills
      A small amount of a ferrofluid placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field forms hill-like structures. Investigate how the properties of these structures depend on relevant parameters.

    5.  Leidenfrost stars
      In the Leidenfrost effect, a water drop placed on a hot surface can survive for minutes. Under certain circumstances, such a drop develops oscillating star shapes. Induce different oscillatory modes and investigate them.

    6.  Fast chain
      A chain consisting of wooden blocks inclined relative to the vertical and connected by two threads (see Figure) is suspended vertically and then released. Compared to free fall, the chain falls faster when it is dropped onto a horizontal surface. Explain this phenomenon and investigate how the relevant parameters affect the motion.


    7.  Spiral waves
      Spiral waves and other types of wave patterns may occur on a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk. Investigate these wave patterns.

    8.  Visualising density
      Schlieren Photography is often used to visualise density variations in a gas. Build a Schlieren setup and investigate how well it can resolve density differences.

    9.  Ball in a tube
      A sealed transparent tube is filled with a liquid and contains a small ball. The tube is inclined and its lower end is attached to a motor such that the tube traces a conical surface. Investigate the motion of the ball as a function of relevant parameters.

    10.  Pulling glasses apart
      Put a thin layer of water between two sheets of glass and try to separate them. Investigate the parameters affecting the required force.

    11.  Hair hygrometer
      A simple hygrometer can be built using human hair. Investigate its accuracy and response time as a function of relevant parameters.

    12.  Torsion gyroscope
      Fasten the axis of a wheel to a vertical thread that has a certain torsional resistance (see Figure). Twist the thread, spin the wheel, and release it. Investigate the dynamics of this system.

    13.  Resonating glass
      A wine glass partially filled with liquid will resonate when exposed to the sound from a loudspeaker. Investigate how the phenomenon depends on various parameters.

    14.  Gee-haw whammy diddle
      A gee-haw whammy diddle is a mechanical toy consisting of a simple wooden stick and a second stick that is made up of a series of notches with a propeller at its end. When the wooden stick is pulled over the notches, the propeller starts to rotate. Explain this phenomenon and investigate the relevant parameters.

    15.  Boiled egg
      Suggest non-invasive methods to detect the degree to which a hen’s egg is cooked by boiling. Investigate the sensitivity of your methods.

    16.  Metronome synchronization
      A number of mechanical metronomes standing next to each other and set at random initial phases under certain conditions reach synchronous behaviour in a matter of minutes. Investigate the phenomenon.

    17.  Vacuum bazooka
      A ‘vacuum bazooka’ can be built with a simple plastic pipe, a light projectile, and a vacuum cleaner. Build such a device and maximise the muzzle velocity.

  • Location: Pak Turk School and college Chak Shehzad Islamabad
  • Problems:
    1. Invent Yourself

      Construct a simple seismograph that amplifies a local disturbance by mechanical, optical or electrical methods. Determine the typical response curve of your device and investigate the parameters of the damping constant. What is the maximum amplification that you can achieve?

    2.  Colour of Powders

      If a coloured material is ground to a powder, in some cases the resulting powder may have a different colour to that of the original material. Investigate how the degree of grinding affects the apparent colour of the powder.

    3.  Dancing Coin

      Take a strongly cooled bottle and put a coin on its neck. Over time you will hear a noise and see movements of the coin. Explain this phenomenon and investigate how the relevant parameters affect the dance.

    4.  Heron’s Fountain

      Construct a Heron’s fountain and explain how it works. Investigate how the relevant parameters affect the height of the water jet.

    5.  Drinking Straw

      When a drinking straw is placed in a glass of carbonated drink, it can rise up, sometimes toppling over the edge of the glass. Investigate and explain the motion of the straw and determine the conditions under which the straw will topple.

    6.  Ring Oiler

      An oiled horizontal cylindrical shaft rotates around its axis at constant speed. Make a ring from a cardboard disc with the inner diameter roughly twice the diameter of the shaft and put the ring on the shaft. Depending on the tilt of the ring, it can travel along the shaft in either direction. Investigate the phenomenon.

    7.  Conical Piles

      Non-adhesive granular materials can be poured such that they form a cone-like pile. Investigate the parameters that affect the formation of the cone and the angle it makes with the ground.

    8.  Cusps in a Cylinder

      A horizontal cylinder is partially filled with a viscous fluid. When the cylinder is rotated around its axis, unusual fluid behaviour can be observed, such as cusp-like shapes on the walls of the cylinder. Investigate the phenomenon.

    9.  Candle in Water

      Add some weight to a candle such that it barely floats in water. As the candle burns, it may continue to float. Investigate and explain this phenomenon.

    10.  Tesla Valve

      A Tesla valve is a fixed-geometry, passive, one-direction valve. A Tesla valve offers a resistance to flow that is much greater in one direction compared to the other. Create such a Tesla valve and investigate its relevant parameters.

    11.  Azimuthal-Radial Pendulum

      Fix one end of a horizontal elastic rod to a rigid stand. Support the other end of the rod with a taut string to avoid vertical deflection and suspend a bob from it on another string (see figure). In the resulting pendulum the radial oscillations (parallel to the rod) can spontaneously convert into azimuthal oscillations (perpendicular to the rod) and vice versa. Investigate the phenomenon.

    12.  Curie Point Engine

      Make a nickel disc that can rotate freely around its axis. Place a magnet near the edge of the disc and heat this side of it. The disc starts to rotate. Investigate the parameters affecting the rotation and optimize the design for a steady motion.

    13.  Weighing Time

      It is commonly known that an hourglass changes its weight (as measured by a scale) while flowing. Investigate this phenomenon.

    14.  Radiant Lantern

      When taking a picture of a glowing lantern at night, a number of rays emanating from the centre of the lantern may appear in the pictures. Explain and investigate this phenomenon. 

    15. Blowing Bubbles

      When blowing on a soap film in a ring, a bubble may be formed. The liquid film may pop or continue to exist. Investigate how the number of bubbles produced from a single soap film and the characteristics of the bubbles depend on the relevant parameters.

    16. Acoustic Levitation

      Small objects can levitate in acoustic standing waves. Investigate the phenomenon. To what extent can you manipulate the objects?

    17. Water Bottle

      The current craze of water bottle flipping involves launching a partially filled plastic bottle into the air so that it performs a somersault before landing on a horizontal surface in a stable, upright position. Investigate the phenomenon and determine the parameters that will result in a successful flip.


Location: Riphah University, Lahore campus


Location: Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi


  1. Invent Yourself

    Build a simple motor whose propulsion is based on corona discharge. Investigate how the rotor’s motion depends on relevant parameters and optimize your design for maximum speed at a fixed input voltage.

  2. Aerosol

    When water flows through a small aperture, an aerosol may be formed. Investigate the parameters that determine whether an aerosol is formed rather than a jet for example. What are the properties of the aerosol?

  3. Undertone Sound

    Allow a tuning fork or another simple oscillator to vibrate against a sheet of paper with a weak contact between them. The frequency of the resulting sound can have a lower frequency than the tuning fork’s fundamental frequency. Investigate this phenomenon.

  4. Funnel and Ball

    A light ball (e.g. ping-pong ball) can be picked up with a funnel by blowing air through it. Explain the phenomenon and investigate the relevant parameters.

  5. Filling Up a Bottle

    When a vertical water jet enters a bottle, sound may be produced, and, as the bottle is filled up, the properties of the sound may change. Investigate how relevant parameters of the system such as speed and dimensions of the jet, size and shape of the bottle or water temperature affect the sound.

  6. Hurricane Balls

    Two steel balls that are joined together can be spun at incredibly high frequency by first spinning them by hand and then blowing on them through a tube, e.g. a drinking straw. Explain and investigate this phenomenon.

  7. Loud Voice

    A simple cone-shaped or horn-shaped object can be used to optimise the transfer of the human voice to a remote listener. Investigate how the resulting acoustic output depends on relevant parameters such as the shape, size, and material of the cone.

  8. Sci-Fi Sound

    Tapping a helical spring can make a sound like a “laser shot” in a science-fiction movie. Investigate and explain this phenomenon.

  9. Soy Sauce Optics

    Using a laser beam passing through a thin layer (about 200 µm) of soy sauce the thermal lens effect can be observed. Investigate this phenomenon.

  10. Suspended Water Wheel

    Carefully place a light object, such as a Styrofoam disk, near the edge of a water jet aiming upwards. Under certain conditions, the object will start to spin while being suspended. Investigate this phenomenon and its stability to external perturbations.

  11. Flat Self-Assembly

    Put a number of identical hard regular-shaped particles in a flat layer on top of a vibrating plate. Depending on the number of particles per unit area, they may or may not form an ordered crystal-like structure. Investigate the phenomenon.

  12. Gyroscope Teslameter

    A spinning gyroscope made from a conducting, but nonferromagnetic material slows down when placed in a magnetic field. Investigate how the deceleration depends on relevant parameters.

  13. Moiré Thread Counter

    When a pattern of closely spaced non-intersecting lines (with transparent gaps in between) is overlaid on a piece of woven fabric, characteristic moiré fringes may be observed. Design an overlay that allows you to measure the thread count of the fabric. Determine the accuracy for simple fabrics (e.g. linen) and investigate if the method is reliable for more complex fabrics (e.g. denim or Oxford cloth).

  14. Looping Pendulum

    Connect two loads, one heavy and one light, with a string over a horizontal rod and lift up the heavy load by pulling down the light one. Release the light load and it will sweep around the rod, keeping the heavy load from falling to the ground. Investigate this phenomenon.

  15. Newton’s Cradle

    The oscillations of a Newton’s cradle will gradually decay until the spheres come to rest. Investigate how the rate of decay of a Newton’s cradle depends on relevant parameters such as the number, material, and alignment of the spheres.

  16. Sinking Bubbles

    When a container of liquid (e.g. water) oscillates vertically, it is possible that bubbles in the liquid move downwards instead of rising. Investigate this phenomenon.

  17. Popsicle Chain Reaction

    Wooden popsicle sticks can be joined together by slightly bending each of them so that they interlock in a so-called “cobra weave” chain. When such a chain has one of its ends released, the sticks rapidly dislodge, and a wave front travels along the chain. Investigate the phenomenon.


Location: Riphah University, Lahore campus


Location: Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi


  1. Invent Yourself

    Design an instrument for measuring current using its heating effect. What are the accuracy, precision and limits of the method?

  2. Inconspicuous Bottle

    Put a lit candle behind a bottle. If you blow on the bottle from the opposite side, the candle may go out, as if the bottle was not there at all. Explain the phenomenon.

  3. Swinging Sound Tube

    A Sound Tube is a toy, consisting of a corrugated plastic tube, that you can spin around to produce sounds. Study the characteristics of the sounds produced by such toys, and how they are affected by the relevant parameters.

  4. Singing Ferrite

    Insert a ferrite rod into a coil fed from a signal generator. At some frequencies the rod begins to produce a sound. Investigate the phenomenon.

  5. Sweet Mirage

    Fata Morgana is the name given to a particular form of mirage. A similar effect can be produced by shining a laser through a fluid with a refractive index gradient. Investigate the phenomenon.

  6. Saxon Bowl

    A bowl with a hole in its base will sink when placed in water. The Saxons used this device for timing purposes. Investigate the parameters that determine the time of sinking.

  7. Balls on a String

    Put a string through a ball with a hole in it such that the ball can move freely along the string. Attach another ball to one end of the string. When you move the free end periodically, you can observe complex movements of the two balls. Investigate the phenomenon.

  8. Soap Membrane Filter

    A heavy particle may fall through a horizontal soap film without rupturing it. However, a light particle may not penetrate the film and may remain on its surface. Investigate the properties of such a membrane filter.

  9. Magnetic Levitation

    Under certain circumstances, the “flea” of a magnetic stirrer can rise up and levitate stably in a viscous fluid during stirring. Investigate the origins of the dynamic stabilization of the “flea” and how it depends on the relevant parameters.

  10. Conducting Lines

    A line drawn with a pencil on paper can be electrically conducting. Investigate the characteristics of the conducting line.

  11. Drifting Speckles

    Shine a laser beam onto a dark surface. A granular pattern can be seen inside the spot. When the pattern is observed by a camera or the eye, that is moving slowly, the pattern seems to drift relative to the surface. Explain the phenomenon and investigate how the drift depends on relevant parameters.

  12. Polygon Vortex

    A stationary cylindrical vessel containing a rotating plate near the bottom surface is partially filled with liquid. Under certain conditions, the shape of the liquid surface becomes polygonlike. Explain this phenomenon and investigate the dependence on the relevant parameters.

  13. Friction Oscillator

    A massive object is placed onto two identical parallel horizontal cylinders. The two cylinders each rotate with the same angular velocity, but in opposite directions. Investigate how the motion of the object on the cylinders depends on the relevant parameters.

  14. Falling Tower

    Identical discs are stacked one on top of another to form a freestanding tower. The bottom disc can be removed by applying a sudden horizontal force such that the rest of the tower will drop down onto the surface and the tower remains standing. Investigate the phenomenon and determine the conditions that allow the tower to remain standing.

  15. Pepper Pot

    If you take a salt or pepper pot and just shake it, the contents will pour out relatively slowly. However, if an object is rubbed along the bottom of the pot, then the rate of pouring can increase dramatically. Explain this phenomenon and investigate how the rate depends on the relevant parameters.

  16. Nitinol Engine

    Place a nitinol wire loop around two pulleys with their axes located at some distance from each other. If one of the pulleys is immersed into hot water, the wire tends to straighten, causing a rotation of the pulleys. Investigate the properties of such an engine.

  17. Playing CarD

    A standard playing card can travel a very long distance provided that spin is imparted as it is thrown. Investigate the parameters that affect the distance and the trajectory.


Location: Riphah University, Lahore campus


Location: Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi


  1. Invent Yourself

    Design a boat that moves only due to the periodical mechanical movements of its internal parts and which only interacts with the environment (air, water) through its stiff hull. Optimise the parameters of your boat for maximum speed.

  2. Circling Magnets

    Button magnets with different diameters are attached to each end of a cylindrical battery. When placed on an aluminium foil the object starts to circle. Investigate how the motion depends on relevant parameters.

  3. Proximity Sensor

    A simple passive inductive sensor can detect ferromagnetic objects moving through its magnetic field. Construct such a passive sensor and investigate its characteristics such as sensing range.

  4. Wind Speed

    Let an electric current flow through a coil. When cold air flows over the coil, the coil’s temperature will decrease. Investigate how the temperature drop depends on the wind speed. What is the accuracy of this method of measuring the wind speed?

  5. Synchronised Candles

    Oscillatory flames can be observed when several candles burn next to each other. Two such oscillators can couple with each other, resulting in in-phase or anti-phase synchronisation (depending on the distance between the sets of candles). Explain and investigate this phenomenon.

  6. Irreversible Cartesian Diver

    A simple Cartesian diver (e.g. an inverted test tube partially filled with water) is placed in a long vertical tube filled with water. Increasing the pressure in the tube forces the Cartesian diver to sink. When it reaches a certain depth, it never returns to the surface even if the pressure is changed back to its initial value. Investigate this phenomenon and how it depends on relevant parameters.

  7. Bead Dynamics

    A circular hoop rotates about a vertical diameter. A small bead is allowed to roll in a groove on the inside of the hoop. Investigate the relevant parameters affecting the dynamics of the bead.

  8. Fuses

    A short length of wire can act as an electrical fuse. Determine how various parameters affect the time taken for the fuse to ‘blow’.

  9. Light Whiskers

    When a laser beam enters a soap film at a small angle, a rapidly changing pattern of thin, branching light tracks may appear inside the film. Explain and investigate this phenomenon.

  10. Spin Drift

    When a ring is set to roll in a parabolic bowl, interesting motion patterns may arise. Investigate this phenomenon.

  11. Guitar String

    A periodic force is applied to a steel guitar string using an electromagnet. Investigate the motion of the guitar string around its resonance frequency.

  12. Wilberforce Pendulum

    A Wilberforce pendulum consists of a mass hanging from a vertically oriented helical spring. The mass can both move up and down on the spring and rotate about its vertical axis. Investigate the behaviour of such a pendulum and how it depends on relevant parameters.

  13. Sponge

    A sponge will soak up water at a rate and in a quantity determined by various parameters. Investigate how effective a sponge is at drying a wet surface.

  14. Dynamic Hydrophobicity

    When a drop of liquid impacts on a horizontally moving surface, the droplet may be reflected or not, depending on the speed of the surface. Investigate the interaction between a moving surface and a liquid drop.

  15. Rebounding Capsule

    A spherical ball dropped onto a hard surface will never rebound to the release height, even if it has an initial spin. A capsule-shaped object (i.e. Tic Tac mint) on the other hand may exceed the initial height. Investigate this phenomenon.

  16. Ultrasonic Pump

    A capillary immersed in an ultrasonic bath works like a pump that can lift water to a considerable height. Explain and investigate this phenomenon.

  17. Hand Helicopter

    A simple hand helicopter can be made by attaching rotor blades to one end of a vertical stick. The helicopter moves upwards when the stick is twisted at a high enough speed and then let go. Investigate how the relevant parameters affect the lift-off and the maximum height.


Location: Riphah University, Lahore campus


Location: Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi


  1. Invent Yourself
    Create a non-invasive device that determines the direction of fluid flow inside an opaque pipe. Optimise your device so that you can measure the smallest flow possible.

  2. Rayleigh Disk
    A disk suspended vertically by a thin thread is placed in an acoustic field. This device can be used to measure the intensity of sound by turning about the axis of the thread. Investigate the accuracy of such a device.

  3. Ring on the Rod
    A washer on a vertical steel rod may start spinning instead of simply sliding down. Study the motion of the washer and investigate what determines the terminal velocity.

  4. Unsinkable Disk
    A metal disk with a hole at its centre sinks in a container filled with water. When a vertical water jet hits the centre of the disc, it may float on the water surface. Explain this phenomenon and investigate the relevant parameters.

  5. Bimetallic Oscillator
    A simple electric oscillator can be made using a bimetallic contact-breaker. Investigate the relevant parameters that affect the frequency of such an oscillator.

  6. Tennis Ball Tower
    Build a tower by stacking tennis balls using three balls per layer and a single ball on top. Investigate the structural limits and the stability of such a tower. How does the situation change when more than three balls per each layer and a suitable number of balls on the top layer are used?

  7. Three-Sided Dice
    To land a coin on its side is often associated with the idea of a rare occurrence. What should be the physical and geometrical characteristics of a cylindrical dice so that it has the same probability to land on its side and one of its faces?

  8. Equipotential Lines
    Place two electrodes into water, supply a safe voltage and use a voltmeter to determine electric potential at various locations. Investigate how the measured equipotential lines deviate from your expectations for different conditions and liquids.

  9. Water Spiral
    If a stream of liquid is launched through a small hole, then under certain conditions it twists into a spiral. Explain this phenomenon and investigate the conditions under which the spiral will twist.

  10. Droplet Explosion
    When a drop of a water mixture (e.g. water-alcohol) is deposited on the surface of a hydrophobic liquid (e.g. vegetable oil), the resulting drop may sometimes fragment into smaller droplets. Investigate the parameters that affect the fragmentation and the size of the final droplets.

  11. Balls on an Elastic Band
    Connect two metal balls with an elastic band, then twist the elastic band and put the balls on a table. The balls will begin to spin in one direction, then in the other. Explain this phenomenon and investigate how the behaviour of such a “pendulum” depends on the relevant parameters.

  12. Strange Motion
    Sprinkle small floating particles on the surface of water in a bowl. Bring a strong magnet above and near to the water surface. Explain any observed motion of the particles.

  13. Candle Powered Turbine
    A paper spiral suspended above a candle starts to rotate. Optimise the setup for maximum torque.

  14. Ball on Membrane
    When dropping a metal ball on a rubber membrane stretched over a plastic cup, a sound can be heard. Explain the origin of this sound and explore how its characteristics depend on relevant parameters.

  15. Boycott Effect
    If particles are suspended in a liquid that has a lower density than the particles, the particles will settle to the bottom of the container. The rate of settling can be affected by tilting the container that holds the liquid. Explain this phenomenon and investigate the effect of relevant parameters.

  16. Saving Honey
    When rotating a rod coated with a viscous liquid (e.g. honey), under certain conditions the liquid will stop draining. Investigate this phenomenon.

  17. Invisibility
    Lenticular lenses can be used to distort light and make objects disappear. Investigate how changing the properties of the lens and the geometry of the object affect the extent to which the object can be detected.


  • Location: Comsats University, Lahore
  • Problems:
    1. Coloured Line (4)

      When a compact disc or DVD is illuminated with light coming from a filament lamp in such a way that only rays with large angles of incidence are selected, a clear green line can be observed. The colour varies upon slightly changing the angle of the disc. Explain and investigate this phenomenon.

    2.  Faraday Waves(7)

      A droplet of less viscous liquid floating in a bath of a more viscous liquid develops surprising  wave-like patterns  when  the entire  system  is set  into  vertical  oscillation. Investigate this phenomenon and the parameters relevant to the production of stable patterns.

    3. Upstream Flow (10)

      Sprinkle light particles on a water surface. Then allow a water stream to be incident on the surface from a small height. Under certain conditions, the particles may begin to move up the stream. Investigate and explain this phenomenon.

    4. Rice Kettlebells(12)

      Take a vessel and pour some granular material into it, for example, rice. If you dip e.g. a spoon into it, then at a certain depth of immersion, you can lift the vessel and contents by holding the spoon. Explain this phenomenon and explore the relevant parameters of the system.

    5. Pancake Rotation (15)

      Place a few balls in a round container. If you move the container around a vertical axis, the balls can move co-directionally with the movement of the container, or they can move in the opposite direction. Explain this phenomenon and investigate how the direction of movement depends on relevant parameters.

    6. Arrester Bed (17)

      A sand-filled lane results in the dissipation of the kinetic energy of a moving vehicle. What length is necessary for such an arrester bed to entirely stop a passively moving object (e.g. a ball)? What parameters does the length depend on?

  • Top Teams(Virtual Round):
    1. Fermi Resonators (ICT)
    2. LGS OPF
    3. Karachi Tesla (SINDH)
    4. Academy of Excellence (GILGIT)


Location: Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi


  1. Fractal Fingers
    The effect of fractal fingering can be observed if a droplet of an ink-alcohol mixture is deposited onto diluted acrylic paint. How are the geometry and dynamics of the fingers influenced by relevant parameters?

  2. Oscillating Sphere
    A light sphere with a conducting surface is suspended from a thin wire. When the sphere is rotated about its vertical axis (thereby twisting the wire) and then released, it starts to oscillate. Investigate how the presence of a magnetic field affects the motion.

  3. Siren
    If you direct an air flow onto a rotating disk with holes, a sound may be heard. Explain this phenomenon and investigate how the sound characteristics depend on the relevant parameters.

  4. Whistling Mesh
    When a stream of water hits a rigid metal mesh within a range of angles, a whistling tone may be heard. Investigate how the properties of the mesh, stream and angle affect the cha­rac­teristics of the sound produced.

  5. Magnetic-Mechanical Oscillator
    Secure the lower ends of two identical leaf springs to a non-magnetic base and attach magnets to the upper ends such that they repel and are free to move. Investigate how the movement of the springs depends on relevant parameters.

  6. Euler’s Pendulum
    Take a thick plate of non-magnetic ma­terial and fix a neodymium magnet on top of it. Suspend a magnetic rod (which can be assembled from cylindrical neo­dy­mium magnets) underneath it. Deflect the rod so that it touches the plate only with highest edge and release it. Study the motion of such a pendulum under various conditions.

  7. Oscillating Screw
    When placed on its side on a ramp and released, a screw may experience growing oscillations as it travels down the ramp. Investigate how the motion of the screw, as well as the growth of these oscillations depend on the relevant parameters.

  8. Ball on Ferrite Rod
    A ferrite rod is placed at the bottom end of a vertical tube. Apply an ac voltage, of a frequency of the same order as the natural frequency of the rod, to a fine wire coil wrapped around its lower end. When a ball is placed on top of the rod, it will start to bounce. Explain and investigate this phenomenon.

  9. Ponyo’s Heat Tube
    A glass tube with a sealed top is filled with water and mounted vertically. The bottom end of the tube is immersed in a beaker of water and a short segment of the tube is heated. Investigate and explain the periodic motion of the water and any vapour bubbles observed.

  10. Jet Refraction
    A vertical jet can be refracted when passing through an in­cli­ned sieve with a fine mesh. Propose a law for such re­fraction and investigate relevant parameters.

  11. Thermoacoustic Engine
    A piston placed in the open end of a horizontal test tube which has its other end partially filled with steel wool may oscillate when the closed end is heated up. Investigate the phe­no­menon and determine the efficiency of this engine.

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